Chloroquine is now uncommonly used in favor of its derivative hydroxychloroquine. In the United States, hydroxychloroquine is most often used for its anti-inflammatory effects in rheumatology and dermatology. Plaquenil infertility Hydroxychloroquine cancer stem cells Hair loss hydroxychloroquine Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine both belong to the quinolone family and share similar clinical indications and side effects, including retinal toxicity. Chloroquine-induced retinal toxicity was first described in 1959 and the retinal toxic effects of hydroxychloroquine were later described in 1967 3, 4. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine can cause toxic retinopathy due to their binding of melanin in the retinal pigmented epithelium RPE as well as direct toxicity to retinal ganglion cells. Early findings include mottling of the RPE and blunted foveal reflex. Many systemic medications may cause retinal toxicity. One such commonly used medication for dermatologic and rheumatologic inflammatory conditions is hydroxychloroquine Plaquenil, a chloroquine derivative. It is used to treat many diseases including malaria, rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. While early toxicity may be asymtomatic, patients with more advanced stage of toxicity may complain of color vision changes or paracentral scotomas. Its toxic effects on the retina are seen in the macula. Plaquenil retinopathy visual fields Multimodal Imaging in Plaquenil Toxicity, Bull's-eye maculopathy due to hydroxychloroquine toxicity Hydroxychloroquine pericarditisSevere side effects of plaquenilPlaquenil and tylenol pmPlaquenil causing low blood sugar The recent American Academy of Ophthalmology recommendations for screening for hydroxychloroquine retinopathy advised the annual use of 10-2 automated visual field testing with a white target. 1 This advice was based on the widespread use and availability of instruments that do white fields. However, some laboratories routinely use automated visual fields with a red test object, and older. Value of Red Targets and Pattern Deviation Plots in Visual.. Hydroxychloroquine-Induced Retinal Toxicity - American.. Hydroxychloroquine retinopathy A review of imaging. The annular zone 2 to 8 degrees from fixation was useful for distinguishing the significance of scotoma points. Scotomas with more contiguous scotoma points were more often associated with retinopathy. Keywords hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, 10-2 visual field, ideal body weight, toxicity, retinopathy Today it is recommended that every single person on Plaquenil get a visual field 10-2 test, plus one of the three other highly sensitive screening tests the FAF fundus autofluorescence imaging, the SD-OCT spectral domain optical coherence, or the multifocal electroretinogram mfERG,” Thomas says. Mar 10, 2017 Hydroxychloroquine HCQ; Plaquenil is used increasingly in the management of a variety of autoimmune disorders, with well established roles in dermatology and rheumatology and emerging roles in oncology.